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工业机器人|荣仕杰为您专业解读
作者: 编辑: 来源: 发布日期: 2019.10.29
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很多人喜欢看美国大片,无疑是被大片里面的精彩场面所吸引。但是这些大片中通常有一个角色功不可没,那就是—机器人。他们刀枪不入、神奇白怪;他们上…

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很多人喜欢看美国大片,无疑是被大片里面的精彩场面所吸引。但是这些大片中通常有一个角色功不可没,那就是—机器人。他们刀枪不入、神奇白怪;他们上天入地、亦正亦邪。在欣赏大片的时候我们也总幻想自己身边能有一个可以谈心聊天、照顾我的起居、懂我的喜怒哀愁的机器人。

虽然当今的机器人尽管没达到如此人性化的地步,但在延伸人的手脚、智能化方面已经取得很大成果。譬如工业机器人,在工业生产制造上代替人完成了许多不可完成的任务,创造了人类奇迹。今天我们就来聊聊关于工业机器人的那些事!
工业机器人的组成部分
工业机器人由主体、驱动系统和控制系统三个基本部分组成。
1、主体即机座和执行机构,包括臂部、腕部和手部,有的机器人还有行走机构。大多数工业机器人有3~6个运动自由度,其中腕部通常有1~3个运动自由度;
2、驱动系统包括动力装置和传动机构,用以使执行机构产生相应的动作;
3、控制系统是按照输入的程序对驱动系统和执行机构发出指令信号,并进行控制。
工业机器人的特点
1、可编程。生产自动化的进一步发展是柔性启动化。工业机器人可随其工作环境变化的需要而再编程,因此它在小批量多品种具有均衡高效率的柔性制造过程中能发挥很好的功用,是柔性制造系统中的一个重要组成部分。
2、拟人化。工业机器人在机械结构上有类似人的行走、腰转、大臂、小 臂、手腕、手爪等部分,在控制上有电脑。此外,智能化工业机器人还有许多类似人类的“生物传感器”,如皮肤型接触传感器、力传感器、负载传感器、视觉传感 器、声觉传感器、语言功能等。传感器提高了工业机器人对周围环境的自适应能力。
3、通用性。除了专门设计的专用的工业机器人外,一般工业机器人在执行不同的作业任务时具有较好的通用性。比如,更换工业机器人手部末端操作器(手爪、工具等)便可执行不同的作业任务。
4、工业机器技术涉及的学科相当广泛,归纳起来是机械学和微电子学的结合-机电一体化技术。第三代智能机器人不仅具有获取外部环境信息的各种传感器,而且还具有记忆能力、语言理解能力、图像识别能力、推理判断能力等人工智能,这些都是微电子技术的应用,特别是计算机技术的应用密切相关。
当今工业机器人技术正逐渐向着具有行走能力、具有多种感知能力、具有较强的对作业环境的自适应能力的方向发展。
工业机器人分类
1.移动机器人(AGV)
移动机器人(AGV)是工业机器人的一种类型,它由计算机控制,具有移动、自动导航、多传感器控制、网络交互等功能,它可广泛应用于机械、电子、纺织、卷烟、医疗、食品、造纸等行业的柔性搬运、传输等功能。
2.点焊机器人

焊接机器人具有性能稳定、工作空间大、运动速度快和负荷能力强等焊接机器人 特点,焊接质量明显优于人工焊接,大大提高了点焊作业的生产率。主要用于汽车整车的焊接工作,生产过程由各大汽车主机厂负责完成。

机器人焊钳系统2

点焊机器人

3.弧焊机器人

弧焊机器人主要应用于各类汽车零部件的焊接生产。在该领域,国际大型工业机器人生产企业主要以向成套装备供应商提供单元产品为主。

03弧焊工作站案例视频

4.激光加工机器人
激光加工机器人是将机器人技术应用于激光加工中,通过高精度工业机器人实现更加柔性的激光加工作业。本系统通过示教盒进行在线操作,也可通过离线方式进行编程。该系统通过对加工工件的自动检测,产生加工件的模型,继而生成加工曲线,也可以利用CAD数据直接加工。可用于工件的激光表面处理、打孔、焊接和模具修复等。
5.真空机器人
真空机器人是一种在真空环境下工作的机器人,主要应用于半导体工业中,实现晶圆在真空腔室内的传输。真空机械手难进口、受限制、用量大、通用性强,其成为制约了半导体装备整机的研发进度和整机产品竞争力的关键部件。
6.洁净机器人
洁净机器人是一种在洁净环境中使用的工业机器人。随着生产技术水平不断提高,其对生产环境的要求也日益苛刻,很多现代工业产品生产都要求在洁净环境进行,洁净机器人是洁净环境下生产需要的关键设备。
工业机器人的应用
随着工业机器人发展的深度和广度以及机器人智能水平的提高,工业机器人已在众多领域得到了应用。从传统的汽车制造领域向非制造领域延伸。如采矿机器人、建筑业机器人以及水电系统用于维护维修的机器人等。在国防军事、医疗卫生、食品加工、生活服务等领域工业机器人的应用也越来越多。
启明星工业机器人应用与维护
■培养目标
面向工业现场一线培养具有良好职业道德、遵纪守法、诚信、敬业、有责任心,能够从事工业机器人设备、机电一体化设备、电气自动化设备的运行维护、编程调试、安装维修、销售及售后服务的等工作,具有较好的操作经验,能进行生产作业管理,具有创新精神和创业意识的高素质技能型人才。
■主干课程
电工基础、机械设计基础、生产作业管理、自动控制原理、工业机器人技术、单片机原理与应用技术、可编程控制器技术、人机界面控制技术、伺服驱动技术、传感器与检测技术、液压与气动控制系统装调与维修、通信网络技术、工业机器人应用与维护技术、FMS柔性控制系统安装与调试等。
■就业方向
主要应用领域: 汽车、现代制造、电子生产企业、塑料制品、食品、饮料、医药、烟草、家政服务、电力设施、自动化办公等行业。尤其在毛坯制造、冲压、压铸、锻造、机械加工、焊接、热处理、表面涂覆、上下料、装配、运输、检测及仓库堆垛等作业中,工业机器人更是标准设备得到广泛应用。
1、工业机器人制造商:工业机器人及机电一体化设备的装配人员、调试人员
2、工业机器人销售商:工业机器人及机电一体化设备的专业销售人员、售后技术服务人员
3、工业机器人使用商:工业机器人及机电一体化设备的销售及售后技术服务人员
4、自主创业:从事电气自动化控制、机电一体化设备开发、设计、改造等项目的创业。
■就业优势
1、在2000年,中国工业机器人保有量仅为3500台,到2013年时,这个数据跃升为150000多台。专家预计未来年均增速有望保持25%,目前中国已经超过日本成为世界最大的机器人市场,2025年基本达到自动化水平。
2、“工业时代的机器人战略”势必导致一批生产人员转行(一个机器人也可以替代2-4个熟练工人)。但同时,大规模机器人的出现也会催生大量新岗位,包括机器人的研发、操控和维修等岗位。

3、机器人制造厂商及其集成商(制造和销售方)需求大量制造、设计集成、安装调试、销售及技术服务工程师和技术员。使用工业机器人的客户(购买方)需求大量操作与维护、编程与调试、维修与保养等应用工程师。

英文版:

Many people like to watch American blockbusters, which is undoubtedly attracted by the highlights in the blockbuster. But there is usually one character in these big movies that is indispensable, that is, the robot. They are invulnerable and magical, and they are strange and strange. When we appreciate the blockbuster, we always imagine that we can have a robot that can talk and take care of me, and understand my anger and mourning.
Although today's robots have not reached such a human level, they have achieved great results in extending people's hands and feet and intelligence. For example, industrial robots have replaced many unfinished tasks in industrial production and created human miracles. Today we will talk about those things about industrial robots!
Components of industrial robots
Industrial robots consist of three basic parts: the main body, the drive system and the control system.
1. The main body is the base and the actuator, including the arm, the wrist and the hand, and some robots and walking mechanisms. Most industrial robots have 3 to 6 degrees of freedom of movement, of which the wrist usually has 1 to 3 degrees of freedom of movement;
2. The drive system includes a power unit and a transmission mechanism for causing the actuator to generate corresponding actions;
3. The control system issues command signals to the drive system and the actuator according to the input program, and controls.
Industrial robot features
1, programmable. Further development of production automation is flexible start-up. Industrial robots can be reprogrammed as their working environment changes. Therefore, it can play a very good role in a flexible manufacturing process with small batches and multiple varieties with balanced and high efficiency. It is an important part of flexible manufacturing systems.
2. Personification. Industrial robots have similar mechanical walking, waist, arms, arms, wrists, and claws on the mechanical structure. There is a computer in control. In addition, intelligent industrial robots have many human-like “biosensors” such as skin contact sensors, force sensors, load sensors, visual sensors, acoustic sensors, and language functions. Sensors improve the ability of industrial robots to adapt to the surrounding environment.
3. Generality. In addition to specially designed dedicated industrial robots, general industrial robots have better versatility when performing different tasks. For example, replacing industrial robot hand end operators (hands, tools, etc.) can perform different tasks.
4, industrial machine technology involves a wide range of disciplines, summed up is the combination of mechanical and microelectronics - mechatronics technology. The third generation of intelligent robots not only have various sensors for acquiring external environmental information, but also have artificial intelligence such as memory ability, language understanding ability, image recognition ability, reasoning and judgment ability, etc. These are all applications of microelectronic technology, especially computer technology. The application is closely related.
Today's industrial robot technology is gradually developing towards the ability to walk, have multiple sensing capabilities, and have a strong adaptive ability to the working environment.
Industrial robot classification
1. Mobile Robot (AGV)
Mobile robot (AGV) is a type of industrial robot. It is controlled by computer and has functions such as mobile, automatic navigation, multi-sensor control, network interaction, etc. It can be widely used in machinery, electronics, textile, cigarette, medical, food, Flexible handling, transmission and other functions in the papermaking industry.
2. Spot welding robot
The welding robot has the characteristics of stable welding robot, large working space, fast moving speed and strong load capacity. The welding quality is obviously better than manual welding, which greatly improves the productivity of spot welding. It is mainly used for the welding work of automobile vehicles. The production process is completed by the major automobile OEMs.
3. Arc welding robot
Arc welding robots are mainly used in the welding production of various types of automotive parts. In this field, international large-scale industrial robot manufacturers mainly provide unit products to complete equipment suppliers.
4. Laser processing robot
The laser processing robot applies robot technology to laser processing, and realizes more flexible laser processing operations through high-precision industrial robots. The system is operated online through the teaching box or offline. The system generates a model of the workpiece by automatically detecting the workpiece, and then generates a machining curve, which can also be directly processed by using CAD data. It can be used for laser surface treatment, punching, welding and mold repair of workpieces.
5. Vacuum robot
A vacuum robot is a robot that operates in a vacuum environment and is mainly used in the semiconductor industry to realize the transmission of wafers in a vacuum chamber. Vacuum manipulators are difficult to import, restricted, large in quantity, and versatile, which has become a key component that restricts the research and development progress of semiconductor equipment and the competitiveness of the whole machine.
6. Clean robot
A clean robot is an industrial robot used in a clean environment. As the level of production technology continues to increase, its requirements for the production environment are increasingly demanding. Many modern industrial products are required to be produced in a clean environment. Clean robots are the key equipment for production in a clean environment.
Industrial robot application
With the depth and breadth of industrial robot development and the improvement of robot intelligence, industrial robots have been applied in many fields. Extending from the traditional automotive manufacturing field to the non-manufacturing field. Such as mining robots, construction robots, and hydropower systems for maintenance and repair robots. There are more and more applications of industrial robots in the fields of national defense, military, medical and health, food processing, and life services.
Qixing Industrial Robot Application and Maintenance
■ Training objectives
For the first-line training of industrial sites, with good professional ethics, law-abiding, honesty, dedication, and responsibility, can be engaged in industrial robot equipment, mechatronics equipment, electrical automation equipment operation and maintenance, programming and debugging, installation and maintenance, sales and after-sales service And other work, with good operational experience, can carry out production operations management, high-quality skilled talents with innovative spirit and entrepreneurial awareness.
■Main Course
Electrical foundation, mechanical design basis, production operation management, automatic control principle, industrial robot technology, single chip principle and application technology, programmable controller technology, human-machine interface control technology, servo drive technology, sensor and detection technology, hydraulic and pneumatic control System installation and maintenance, communication network technology, industrial robot application and maintenance technology, FMS flexible control system installation and commissioning.
■ Employment direction
Main application areas: Automotive, modern manufacturing, electronic manufacturing companies, plastic products, food, beverages, medicine, tobacco, housekeeping services, power facilities, automated office and other industries. Especially in rough manufacturing, stamping, die-casting, forging, machining, welding, heat treatment, surface coating, loading and unloading, assembly, transportation, inspection and warehouse stacking, industrial robots are widely used as standard equipment.
1. Industrial robot manufacturers: assemblers and commissioners of industrial robots and mechatronics equipment
2. Industrial robot sellers: professional sales personnel of industrial robots and mechatronics equipment, after-sales technical service personnel
3. Industrial robot users: sales and after-sales technical service personnel of industrial robots and mechatronics equipment
4. Self-employment: Engaged in the business of electrical automation control, mechatronics equipment development, design, transformation and other projects.
■ Employment advantage
1. In 2000, the number of industrial robots in China was only 3,500. By 2013, this data had jumped to more than 150,000. Experts predict that the average annual growth rate is expected to maintain 25%. At present, China has surpassed Japan to become the world's largest robot market, and basically reached the level of automation in 2025.
2, "the robot strategy in the industrial era" is bound to lead to a batch of production personnel to switch (a robot can also replace 2-4 skilled workers). But at the same time, the emergence of large-scale robots will also spawn a lot of new jobs, including the development, control and maintenance of robots.
3. Robot manufacturers and their integrators (manufacturers and sellers) require extensive manufacturing, design integration, installation and commissioning, sales and technical service engineers and technicians. Customers who use industrial robots (purchasers) require a large number of application engineers for operation and maintenance, programming and commissioning, repair and maintenance.

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