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自动焊接设备介绍-昆山荣仕杰
作者: 编辑: 来源: 发布日期: 2019.12.11
信息摘要:
自适应控制的焊接设备是一种自动化程度较高的焊接设备,它配用传感器和电子检测线路,对焊缝轨迹自动导向和跟踪,并对主要的焊接参数进行实行闭环的反…
近20年来,随着数字化,自动化,计算机,机械设计技术的发展,以及对焊接质量的高度重视,自动焊接已发展成为一种先进的制造技术,自动焊接设备在各工业的应用中所发挥的作用越来越大,应用范围正在迅速扩大。在现代工业生产中,焊接生产过程的机械化和自动化是焊接机构制造工业现代化发展的必然趋势。
中文名
自动焊接设备
外文名
Automatic welding equipment 
比    较
数字化,自动化,计算机发展
构    成
焊接电源等
备    注
自动焊接发展成为先进的制造技术
注意事项
灵活多样的焊锡方式

种类

编辑
根据自动化程度自动化焊接设备可分为以下三类:
1、刚性自动化焊接设备刚性自动化焊接设备亦可称为初级自动化焊接设备,其大多数是按照开环控制的原理设计的。虽然整个焊接过程由焊接设备自动完成,但对焊接过程中焊接参数的波动不能进行 闭环反馈系统,不能随机纠正可能出现的偏差。
2、自适应控制自动化焊接设备
自适应控制的焊接设备是一种自动化程度较高的焊接设备,它配用传感器和电子检测线路,对焊缝轨迹自动导向和跟踪,并对主要的焊接参数进行实行闭环的反馈控制。整个焊接过程将按预先设定的程序和工艺参数自动完成
3、智能化自动焊接设备
它利用各种高级的传感元件,如视觉传感器触觉传感器,听觉传感器和激光扫描器等,并借助计算机软件系统,数据库和 专家系统具有识别、判断、实时检测,运算、自动编程、焊接参数存储和自动生成焊接记录文件的功能。 [1]  

构成

编辑
自动化焊接设备的构成:
1、焊接电源,其输出功率和焊接特性应与拟用的焊接工艺方法相匹配,并装有与主控制器相连接的接口.
2、送丝机及其控制与调速系统,对于送丝速度控制精度要求较高送丝机,其控制电路应加测速反馈
3、焊接机头用其移动机构,其由焊接机头,焊接机头支承架,悬挂式拖板等组成,地于精密型焊头机构,其驱动系统应采用装有编码器的伺服电动机
4、焊件移动或变位机构,如焊接滚轮架,头尾架翻转机,回转平台和 变位机等,精密型的移动变位机构应配伺服电动机驱动
5、焊件夹紧机构
6、主控制器,亦称系统控制器,主要用于各组成部分的联动控制,焊接程序的控制,主要焊接参数的设定,调整和显示。必要时可扩展故障诊断人机对话等控制功能。
7、计算机软件,焊接设备中常用的计算机软件有:编程软件,功能软件,工艺方法软件和专家系统等
8、焊头导向或跟踪机构,弧压自动控制器,焊枪横摆器和监控系统
9、辅助装置,如送丝系统,循环水冷系统、焊剂回收输送装置、焊丝支架、电缆软管及拖链机构结构设计电气控制设计三大部分。
10、焊接机器人,又称机械手臂,是自动化焊接设备的重要组成部分。其主要工作包括:焊接、切割、 热喷涂、搬运等。

自动焊接设备在全位置焊中的应用以及价值

编辑
第一,在全位置焊中应用自动焊接设备,焊接执行部件采取旋转副驱动的方式,对焊枪姿态进行灵活且合理地改变,有利于全位置焊接工作的进行。同时在驱动相同焊接执行部件的时候,还可减小电机功率。在应用中,最好将焊接位置上传感器安装于末级减速轴,以此对焊枪位置进行检测,采取这种安装方式,所获控制精度相对较高。此外,借助于全自动焊接设备上这一存储器,对部分焊接工艺的参数以及焊缝跟踪控制程序等进行存储,将焊接工艺参数储存于弧焊电源中,以此使弧焊电源所具优势更好地发挥,通过两者配合,有效地解决在全位置自动焊接作业中可能出现的各种质量问题。
第二,在焊枪驱动上借助于步进电机(步进电机是指把电脉冲信号转变成为角位移或者线位移的一种开环控制元步进电机件)来实施驱动,这种电机可把数字输入脉冲型号进行有效地转换,将其转换成为一种旋转运动,该元件自身的精度较高,不仅不会出现漂移问题,同时也不会出现累计误差等问题。在全位置焊接中应用这一元件,不仅不会使转速发生改变,同时控制频率信号也比较稳定,焊枪位移也更为准确。
第三,在全位置焊接作业中,将焊接机头与弧焊电源有机结合,不仅能够达到全位置自动焊接的目的,同时在一定程度上还可使自动焊接设备价格得到降低。通过这种方式,不仅能够实现自动焊接,同时还可借助于弧焊电源以及半自动焊枪的利用来实施半自动焊接。 [2]  

自动焊接设备常见的焊接缺陷以及防止策略

编辑
第一,气孔。在全位置焊中应用自动焊接设备时,气孔是一种比较常见的问题,导致该问题产生的原因有很多,比如焊材自身的原因、操作不当、环境原因等。鉴于此,为有效地防止这一问题,在实施焊接时,应加强气体的保护,焊接温度不可过高,严格按照比例以及相关要求来充装气体,确保充装纯度达到要求。同时还要注意施焊场地周围的环境,若施工场地的风速每秒超过8米,应用防风棚来实施防护,且环境湿度不可过大。此外,为确保施焊位置保持干燥,可利用环形火焰加热器或中频感应 加热器来实施加热。
第二,未熔合。在焊接中,未熔合这一问题一般常出现于立焊位置,导致该问题的原因有焊道打磨形状不正确、在焊接时偏离焊缝或者焊枪摆动的宽度不够合理等。鉴于此,在焊接过程中,在实施焊道打磨作业时,应尽量打磨平整。同时在焊接之前,还应对焊丝进行仔细地观察,察看其摆动宽度是否正确。此外,在焊接过程中,如发现焊接熔池和焊道中心出现偏离,应及时实施调整,以免出现未熔合问题。  [2]  

注意事项

编辑
1、灵活多样的焊锡方式,同时支持点焊和拖焊(拉焊),自动化焊锡设备全部工艺参数可由客户自行设置,以适应各种高难度焊锡作业和微焊锡工艺,全部焊锡参数可以伴随焊点坐标程序读取和保存,实现焊锡作业的柔性化
2、烙铁组件可以任意角度、任意方位调节,控制烙铁组的R轴,可以360度自由旋转,可以根据不同的焊盘和元器件任意设置送锡次数、预热时间和焊锡时间,实现一板多种焊点的复杂焊接工艺,实现焊锡作业的多样化。

3、四轴/五轴联动机械手,自动化焊锡设备全部采用伺服驱动及先进 运动控制算法,有效提升运动末端-烙铁头的定位精度和重复精度,实现3D空间任意焊点准确定位。

In the past 20 years, with the development of digitization, automation, computer, and mechanical design technology, and the great emphasis on welding quality, automatic welding has developed into an advanced manufacturing technology. Automatic welding equipment has played a role in the application of various industries. The role is increasing, and the scope of application is rapidly expanding. In modern industrial production, the mechanization and automation of the welding production process is an inevitable trend of the modernization and development of the welding mechanism manufacturing industry.
Chinese name Automatic welding equipment Foreign name Automatic welding equipment Compared with digitalization, automation, computer development constitutes welding power supply, etc.
table of Contents
1 Variety
2 Composition
3 Application and value of automatic welding equipment in all-position welding
4 Common welding defects and prevention strategies of automatic welding equipment
5 Notes
    
Category edit
According to the degree of automation, automatic welding equipment can be divided into the following three categories:
1. Rigid automated welding equipment Rigid automated welding equipment can also be called primary automated welding equipment, most of which are designed according to the principle of open loop control. Although the entire welding process is automatically completed by the welding equipment, the closed-loop feedback system cannot be used for the fluctuation of welding parameters during the welding process, and random deviations cannot be corrected.
2. Adaptive control of automatic welding equipment
Adaptively controlled welding equipment is a highly automated welding equipment. It is equipped with sensors and electronic detection circuits to automatically guide and track the weld trajectory and implement closed-loop feedback control of the main welding parameters. The entire welding process will be completed automatically according to preset procedures and process parameters
3.Intelligent automatic welding equipment
It uses various advanced sensing elements, such as vision sensors, tactile sensors, hearing sensors and laser scanners, etc., and with the help of computer software systems, databases and expert systems have identification, judgment, real-time detection, calculation, automatic programming, welding parameters Ability to store and automatically generate welding log files. [1]     
    
Composition edit
The composition of automatic welding equipment:
1. The welding power source, its output power and welding characteristics should match the intended welding process method, and is equipped with an interface connected to the main controller.
2. Wire feeder and its control and speed regulation system. For wire feeder with high requirements for wire feed speed control accuracy, its control circuit should be added with speed feedback.
3. The welding head uses its moving mechanism, which is composed of a welding head, a welding head support frame, a hanging carriage, etc. It is a precision welding head mechanism, and its drive system should use a servo motor with an encoder
4. Welding parts movement or displacement mechanism, such as welding roller frame, head and tail frame turning machine, rotary platform and positioner, etc., precision mobile displacement mechanism should be equipped with servo motor drive
5. Weldment clamping mechanism
6. The main controller, also known as the system controller, is mainly used for the linkage control of each component, the control of the welding program, the setting, adjustment and display of the main welding parameters. If necessary, control functions such as fault diagnosis and human-machine dialogue can be extended.
7, computer software, computer software commonly used in welding equipment are: programming software, functional software, process software and expert systems, etc.
8. Welding head guidance or tracking mechanism, automatic arc voltage controller, welding gun pendulum and monitoring system
9. Auxiliary devices, such as wire feeding system, circulating water cooling system, flux recovery and conveying device, wire support, cable hose and towline mechanism structure design, electrical control design three major parts.
10. Welding robot, also called mechanical arm, is an important part of automatic welding equipment. Its main tasks include: welding, cutting, thermal spraying, and handling.
    
Application and value editing of automatic welding equipment in all-position welding
First, the automatic welding equipment is used in all-position welding. The welding execution part is driven by a rotary pair to flexibly and reasonably change the attitude of the welding gun, which is beneficial to the all-position welding work. At the same time, the motor power can be reduced when driving the same welding execution components. In application, it is better to install the sensor at the welding position on the final reduction shaft to detect the position of the welding gun. With this installation method, the control accuracy is relatively high. In addition, by means of this memory on fully automatic welding equipment, parameters of some welding processes and welding seam tracking control programs are stored, and the welding process parameters are stored in the arc welding power source, thereby making the advantages of the arc welding power source even more Make good use of it, and through the cooperation of the two, effectively solve various quality problems that may occur in all-position automatic welding operations.
Second, the welding gun is driven by a stepper motor (stepper motor is an open-loop control element stepper motor that converts electrical pulse signals into angular displacement or linear displacement). This motor can The digital input pulse model is effectively converted and converted into a rotary motion. The component itself has a high accuracy, which not only does not cause drift problems, but also does not have problems such as cumulative errors. The application of this component in all-position welding not only does not change the speed, but also controls the frequency signal more stable, and the welding gun displacement is more accurate.
Third, in the all-position welding operation, the organic combination of the welding head and the arc welding power source can not only achieve the purpose of all-position automatic welding, but also reduce the price of automatic welding equipment to a certain extent. In this way, not only automatic welding can be achieved, but also semi-automatic welding can be implemented with the help of an arc welding power source and the use of a semi-automatic welding gun. [2]    
    
Common welding defects of automatic welding equipment and prevention strategy editing
First, the stomata. When applying automatic welding equipment in all-position welding, air holes are a relatively common problem. There are many reasons for this problem, such as the cause of the welding material itself, improper operation, and environmental reasons. In view of this, in order to effectively prevent this problem, the gas protection should be strengthened when welding is carried out. The welding temperature must not be too high. The gas should be filled in strict accordance with the proportion and related requirements to ensure that the filling purity meets the requirements. At the same time, we must also pay attention to the environment around the welding site. If the wind speed of the construction site exceeds 8 meters per second, a windproof shed should be used for protection, and the environmental humidity should not be excessive. In addition, to ensure that the welding position is kept dry, a ring flame heater or an intermediate frequency induction heater can be used for heating.
Second, it is not fused. In welding, the problem of non-fusion often occurs in the vertical welding position. The reasons for this problem include the incorrect shape of the bead grinding, the deviation from the weld seam during welding, or the width of the welding gun swing is not reasonable. In view of this, during the welding process, when welding bead grinding is performed, it should be polished as smooth as possible. At the same time, before welding, the wire should be carefully observed to see if the swing width is correct. In addition, during the welding process, if it is found that the welding pool and the center of the bead deviate, adjustments should be implemented in time to avoid non-fusion problems. [2]   
    
Notes edit
1. Flexible and diverse soldering methods, supporting spot welding and drag welding (pulling welding) at the same time. All process parameters of automated soldering equipment can be set by the customer to adapt to various difficult soldering operations and micro soldering processes. All soldering parameters can be accompanied Point coordinate programs are read and saved to realize the flexibility of soldering operations.
2. The soldering iron components can be adjusted at any angle and orientation. The R axis of the soldering iron group can be controlled to rotate 360 degrees freely. The number of soldering times, preheating time and soldering time can be set arbitrarily according to different pads and components to achieve a board A variety of complex soldering processes for solder joints to diversify solder operations.
3. Four-axis / five-axis linkage manipulators and automatic soldering equipment all use servo drive and advanced motion control algorithms to effectively improve the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the end-of-movement tip and achieve accurate positioning of any solder joint in 3D space.

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